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TES: The largest network of teachers in the world

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## Table of Contents

## Proportional error

Atuningfor a regular temperament is defined by a vector T in Tenney tuning space whose entries are the size of the interval, in cents, which the k generators of the regular temperament (often the first k primes) are mapped to. T is denoted by a bra vector, and if M is a monzo then <T|M> is the size, in cents, of the interval defined by M in the tuning T. If q is the rational number which M represents, then we may also write this quantity as T(q).Given a tuning T and a rational number q in the domain of T, the

signed errorof T on q is defined as Err(q) = T(q) - cents(q). Theabsolute errorArr(q) = |Err(q)| is the absolute value of the difference between the value in cents T assigns to q and the actual size in cents of q. Theabsolute proportional erroris defined as 0 when q equals 1 and otherwise APE(q) = Arr(q)/cents(Ben(q)), where Ben(q) is the Benedetti height, the product of the numerator and denominator of q. Similarly, theproprotional errorPE(q) = Err(q)/cents(Ben(q)). While these definition used cents to define proportional error, any logarithm base will lead to the same result, so that the definition is not in fact based on cents.## TOP tuning

For any tuning T, we may define the absolute proportional error APE(T) of T as the supremum (maximum) of the absolute proportional errors of all q belonging to the domain of T; that is, for which T provides a value. ATOP tuningfor a regular temperament is a tuning supporting the temperament (ie, one which sends commas of the temperament to 0) with minimal APE. This minimal proportional error is a measure of the error of the temperament, which we might call the TOP error.The concept of a TOP tuning was first suggested by Paul Erlich, who gave it its name, which stands for both Tenney OPtimal and Tempered Octaves Please, the latter due to the fact that usually the octaves are tempered.

## Maximal error semigroups

For a tuning T and absolute proportional error E = APE(T), consider the set S of all rational q>0 such that PE(q) = E. If a and b are elements of s, then PE(ab) = E. (In the product ab both errors and Tenney heights add; there can be no cancellation of prime factors since that would imply PE(ab) > E, contra hypothesis.) Hence S is a semigroup under multiplcation, with the structure of a finitely generated free abelian semigroup. A minimal set of generators consists of a finite set of primes or the inverses of primes, where one or the other is chosen so they are tuned sharply, which entails that PE(q)>0 in each case. This is thesharp semigroup; inverting the elements of S leads to a mirror image flat semigroup. This has the consequence that the tuning of S is defined entirely by the tuning of the primes in the sharp semigroup S or in the corresponding flat semigroup. From this we may conclude that E is the minimal weighted L-inf error and TOP tuning may also be defined as the minimal weighted L-inf error tuning.For any regular temperament, we may define an

intrinsic primeto be a prime dividing the numerator or denominator of some comma of the temperament. If the set of intrinsic primes generates the group on which the temperament is defined, we may call the temperament anintrinsic temperament. If the temperament is defined on a group generated by primes, then a prime which is not intrinsic isextrinsic. Consider a TOP tuning of an intrinsic temperament. As with any regular temperament there is a group of commas, the kernel, of rank n-k, where n is the dimension of the temperament and k is the rank of the temperament; n-k is the corank of the temperament. Since the TOP tuning minimizes the maximum sharp error, the rank of the sharp semigroup needs to be as large as possible, and this rank is k+1. If the set of sharp semigroup generators is {s₀, s₁, ...,sₖ} then {PE(s₀) - PE(s₁), PE(s₀) - PE(x₂), ..., PE(s₀) - PE(sxₖ)} is a set of k linear equations, which added to the n-k linear equations denoting setting the tempered commas to zero, gives n equations in n unknowns; the most we can set. Hence an intrinsic temperament has a unique kernel of rank n-k and a unique TOP tuning sharp semigroup of rank k+1. Conversely, if we add to the set of n-k comma generators a subset of k+1 elements of the set of primes and inverted primes of the intrinsic temperament, where for each prime either the prime or the inverse prime is selected, but not both, we obtain apotential TOP tuningon solving the n equations in n unknowns consisting of the n-k kernel equations and the k equations {PE(s₀) - PE(s₁), PE(s₀) - PE(x₂), ..., PE(s₀) - PE(sxₖ)} . Since the set of potential TOP tunings is finite, one way of finding the (unique) TOP tuning is simply to check all of them.## Finding the tuning

For a temperament with both intrinsic and extrinsic primes, we may find the set of TOP tunings by first computing the tuning of the intrinsic primes. Then if r is an extrinsic prime, the tuning may be anything in the range where APE(r) ≤ E. The limit of the Lp tuning as p tends to 1 and the centroid of the region of TOP tunings both lead to choosing the JI tuning for r. This produces the canonical TOP tuning, called TIPTOP. To find the TIPTOP tuning one method is to solve for all the potential TOP tunings of the intrinsic primes, find the tuning with least error, and then tune all the extrinsic primes purely. An alternative method is to first set up a linear programming problem; if T is a val with indeterminate coefficients T = <t₁ t₂ ... tₖ| then minimize E subject to nonnegativity and the linear constraints {tₙ/log₂(pₙ) - 1 ≤ E, 1 - tₙ/log₂(pₙ) ≤ E, <T|cₖ> = 0} where the pₙ are the primes of the temperament, and the cₖ are the commas. We then may replace the tuning of all of the extrinsic primes with the pure JI tuning to get TIPTOP.We may solve the sharp semigroup equations exactly to obtain solutions in the transcendental extension Q(log₂(q₁), log₂(t₂), ..., log₂(qₖ)) where the qₙ are the intrinsic primes other than 2. For example, take 5-limit meantone. Since 2 and 5 divide 80 and 3 divides 81. this is an intrinsic temperament. Solving for the TOP tuning either by linear programing or checking all the potential TOP tunings, we find the sharp semigroup is generated by {2, 1/3, 5}. Solving the sharp semigroup equations gives us a TOP tuning T = <3q₃/log₂(6480) (8q₃ + 2q₃q₅)/log₂(6480) 8q₃q₅/log₂(6480)|. Here q₃ = log₂(3), q₅ = log₂(5), and the denominator can also be written 4 + 4q₃ + q₅. A more complex example including an extrinsic prime is 13-limit parahemif temperament. Setting D = 22 + q₁₁ + 5q₁₃, we have T = <(2q₁₁ +10q₁₃)/D (18q₁₁ + 2q₁₃)/D q₅ (102q₁₁ - 62q₁₃)/D 44q₁₁/D 44q₁₃/D|. Note that all the prime tunings except for that of 5 lie in the field Q(q₁₁, q₁₃), where 1/2, 11 and 13 generate the sharp semigroup; 5 is of course the extrinsic prime. The tuning of the other primes is the same as the tuning for hemif temperament, which has the same commas, generated by {144/143, 243/242, 364/363}, and the same sharp semigroup, but which tempers the 2.3.7.11.13 subgroup.

If we want a pure-octaves tuning, we may divide the TIPTOP tuning by the tuning of 2, giving what may be called the Pure Octaves TIPTOP tuning, or POTT. The POTT tuning is sometimes in the simple form of prime tunings which can be expressed by way of fractional monzos; for 5- and 7-limit meantone and 11-limit meanpop, we get the 1/4-comma tuning which is also the eigenmonzo 5 minimax tuning. For 7- and 11-limit pajara, we also get the eigenmonzo 5 tuning, with pure 5/4s, and for 13-limit POTT, we get the eigenmonzo 13 tuning. For 5-, 7-, 11-, and 13-limit myna, the POTT tuning is pure 3s. And so forth, for many other examples. The same thing can happen in higher ranks: 7-limit starling has the 3 and 7 eigenvalue tuning, and 11 and 13 limit thrush the 3 and 11 eighenvalue tuning, etc.

## TOP commas and TOP extensions

Suppose T is a TOP tuned temperament with i intrinsic primes, e extrinsic primes, and a sharp semigroup of rank k+1. Then the dimensionality of T is n = e+i; the corank (rank of the comma group) is i-k and so the rank of the temperament is n-(i-k) = e+k. If we move a prime from intrinsic to extrinsic, the rank is therefore increased by 1 and the corank decreased by 1, leaving the dimensionality the same. If νₚ is the valuation val from prime p, meaning all coefficients bu the one for p are zero and the p coefficient is 1, then this "moving" can be accomplished by adding νₚ, for some prime p which is intrinsic but not a prime or inverse prime of the sharp semigroup, as the bottom row of the val list (mapping matrix) for T, or equivalently wedging it with the wedgie for T. This process can continue until all intrinsic primes except those for the sharp semigroup are moved to extrinsic primes. In this case, i=k+1 so the corank is i-k = (k+1)-k = 1, and there is only one comma, defined as usual as a rational number number greater than one which is not a square, cube or other power, generating the kernel. Since either this comma or its inverse is a product in the sharp semigroup, its absolute proportional error is equal to APE(T). The result is that for any regular temperament, there is a unique comma of the temperament such that the absolute proportional error in any TOP tuning is equal to the maximal absolute proportional error for the temperament. This comma we may call theTOP comma.The TOP comma in a sense encapsulates the error of the temperament. Any TOP tuning of the temperament, including TIPTOP, is also a TOP tuning of the codimension one temperament defined by the TOP comma.For an example of how this works, in the 5 and 7 limits, the TOP comma for magic temperament is 3125/3072; in the 11-limit, |0 -11 15 0 -5>; in the 13 limit, |0 0 46 0 -19 -11>. Putting these in Graham's app will show how closely these are associated with magic. In many cases, the association is even more emphatic.